Friday April 29, 2022
By Hassan Sheikh Mohamud
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud served as President of Somalia from 2012 to 2017 and a candidate for the President of the Federal Republic of Somalia
For far too long, Somalia was at a
crossroads in which it was always hoped that it would follow the path of good
governance and democracy based on consent by its people. Somalia has also been
at crossroads regarding reorganizing its security to defend itself from
Al-Shabaab, which has directly affiliated with the global terrorism network of
Al-Qaeda, which is a significant threat to global peace and security and
created mayhem, misery, and instability in Somalia.
When I became the president in 2012,
security was central to our six-pillar plan- that we first confront the evil of
terrorism that blighted our people and held our country's development hostage.
While at the same time establishing the mechanisms for the government to
function effectively, including the establishment of functioning government
institutions. It was also clear that Somalia would not be defended by force
alone. Key to our new social contract between the Somali people and the government
in 2012 was trust and delivery of public services. Security was an essential component
in implementing the proposed social contract. This had to be
executed in parallel with finalizing an equitable federal government system
representing all the Somali people. When I handed over power in 2017, the
government was operating at full capacity. The political aspect of the
federalism process was completed by creating four federal member states.
The Somali national army had become
an army with a standard uniform governed by the principles of national defense
after decades of clan-affiliated militias controlling the national army, leading
to mistrust and violence within the command control structure. For the first
time, policies and strategies were put together to directly confront, degrade,
and annihilate Al-Shabaab from Somalia and our regional partners'
Despite substantial financial and capacity-building injection investment
by the international community since 2017, the Somali National Army is still
unable to take complete control of its security responsibility from AMISOM.
This is partly due to the lack of battle enablers and professional leadership in
the command control hierarchy, and partly due to the politicization of the army
by the Farmajo administration.
promised to eradicate Al-Shabaab from Somalia in just two years when he took
office in 2017. He also promised victims of terrorism his government would
swiftly compensate them. Nevertheless, this has proven another broken promise. A new transition plan
agreement was signed with the African Union in March 2022, with its
implementation scheduled from April 1, 2022, until the end of 2024. This
agreement indicates the government's monumental failure of developing a
national security strategy to combat and defeat Al-Shabaab. It also reflects
the resurgence of Al-Shabaab and the heightened threat it poses to the Somali
government and AMISOM. The extension and re-hatting of AMISOM under the African
Union Transition Mission in Somalia (ATMIS) could have been avoided had Farmajo
collaborated on security matters with the sub-national governments and not
committed himself to undermining the federalism process. A genuine national
security transition to the Somali national army from the African Union forces
cannot be implemented without the Federal member states' full cooperation,
consent, and participation.
My argument is not that everything
was perfect during my tenure but that Somalia in 2022 should be better secured
against Al-Shabaab and better integrated and governed as a federal state. The
great tragedy is that from 2017 to 2022 Somalia has lost many opportunities at
its disposal, such as finalizing the integration of the Somali army, weakening
Al-Shabaab, and creating domestic political harmony for the country, and a
failure to capitalize on the opportunities that the economic reforms which my government initiated have
Today, it is evident that the
ambitions we started in 2012 as the first internationally recognized government
since the beginning of the civil war in 1991 are yet to be finalized by this
outgoing government which has had four years of international assistance on an
The Farmajo administration was
skilled in misrepresentation and disinformation through social media
manipulation. Furthermore, there was a lack of substance and commitment to
addressing the root causes of Somalia's social, economic, and political fragility.
The key to a stable, functioning, and effective Somali administration is
harmonizing governance through the finalization of the provisional
constitution. Finalizing is necessary because, despite the country's federal
structure, Farmajo has worked very hard to undermine the very notion of
federalism with his ambitions of a unitary system. As a result, the
relationship between the federal government and the federal member states has
deteriorated where meaningful cooperation and dialogue have not been possible
for the last three years. This approach to state-building has resulted in the
fragmentation of trust at all political levels.
Farmajo's legally mandated term in
office ended on February 8, 2021. His failed attempt to illegally extend his
term by two years was eventually defeated after strong opposition from the
Somali people and the international community. Subsequently, this was followed
by Farmajo's attempt to illegally oust Prime Minister Roble from his offices in
what the Somali Cabinet called was an attempted illegal coup. It is clear that
this uncompromising dictatorial approach delayed the electoral process and is
also poisoning the democratic culture and practice of Somalia, which has always
led to a peaceful transition of power in the previous successive
More concerningly, Somalia's
agreed-upon federal governance model is at risk from Farmajo's destructive
unilateral actions, which have, in many cases, politicized and utilized
foreign-trained Somali troops for his political ends. I firmly believe a sense
of political fairness and people's understanding that they can change their
leadership every four years unconditionally will strengthen democracy in Somalia and force out
those with dictatorial ambitions. Somalia can only be governed by consent, and
this is what Farmajo arrogantly ignored.
Somalia's challenges are stark; while
some progress has been made on the economic reform program my government
initiated in 2015, we have a situation where according to the most credible
security intelligence and the independent media point out that Al-Shabaab
collects more taxation and revenue from the Somali population than the federal
government. We are also seeing Al-Shabaab and ISIS competing for new
territories in major urban cities to access and control taxation markets to
increase their domestic revenue generation. Only recently, the dispute forced
traders in one of the biggest markets in the capital Mogadishu and among the
highest generators of domestic resources markets to close their businesses to
protest against the failure of the government to protect them from these
Moreover, we have experienced an upsurge of politically
motivated violence due to the delayed elections. Subsequently, leading to
disruption of the electoral process and the death of many civilians, as in the
case of the terrorist attack in the city of Beletwein on March 23, 2022,
including the suicide attack that killed an outspoken prominent opposition MP Amina
Mohamed Abdi, who was a human rights advocate and a vocal opponent against
state violence under the Farmajo administration. Moreover, only recently, the first
Al-Shabaab attack inside the secure international compound in the airport took
place with the terrorist group claiming responsibility. The Al-Shabab attack at Mogadishu airport’s base camp is the embodiment of the security failures that the Farmajo administration tried to paint over unsuccessfully.
concerning incident inside the secure airport hotel has been what is credibly
believed to be an attempted assassination of the interim Speaker of parliament
Abdisalan Dhabancad who was robustly fulfilling his mandate to expedite the
election process of the House of the People.
I am concerned that Somalia, with the
great global economic crisis brought about by COVID 19, the recurrent regional
climatic shocks, the Ukraine war, and the dwindling available resources to
support fragile countries, Somalia risks becoming a victim of
compassion fatigue. While everything is not the fault of the Somali
government, it is evident that better policy choices would be required to
ensure that the Somali people benefit from the development opportunities
available to them.
Somalia needs an integrated
approach to policymaking that includes the active participation and engagement
of the federal member states to effectively implement a national
security strategy that clearly defines roles and responsibilities while
delivering a killer blow to the stubborn domestic terrorism problem. Somalia is
also strategically located and can be an international trade hub while also
benefiting from the various other available resources, but this would again
require a shift away from confrontation to collaboration with
the federal member states by the central government.
Within the next few weeks, Somalia expects to have a president with a new mandate, and his
plate will be full of urgent priority matters spanning all areas of public
policy. However, most importantly, the new president must understand that
he is part of an elaborate and complex orchestra that must work together for
the national interest. There will be no way to address Somalia's
crippling socio-economic and security situation without understanding the
importance of creating a conducive environment for collaboration.
I have been greatly encouraged by the capacity and the
resilience of the Somali people who have shown the patience and maturity to
absorb the damaging political crisis created by the outgoing administration.
is still a recovering fragile state in which trust building is essential.
Therefore, the responsibility of any incoming government is to keep the nation
together and heal the divisions and scars inflicted by the outgoing
administration in the last five years.
Now, Somalia has to go forward together to shape an
inclusive future which promotes the development of its people.
HASSAN SHEIKH MOHAMUD was President of Somalia from 2012
to 2017 and is a contender for the presidency in 2022.